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    学诗百法 简明词谱 花间词 玉壶清话
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    如何辨别入声字?

      如何辨别入声字?笔者通过大量的观察、比较,再利用现代汉语语音和借助一些方言,终于初步破解了这个长久未能解决的问题。尽管还比较粗略,但眉目已经很清晰了,如果再通过其它的途径和采取更有效的手段进行综合研究,我想,这个问题一定会得到彻底解决的。下面,将这个问题的研究结果概略地予以试述。

      通过对大量的入声字进行比较和归类,不难发现,一切入声字的韵母都落在单韵母 a、o、e 和 i、u、ü 上,或是由其组成的简单结合中(如 ie、üe、ua、uo及ai、ei、ao、ou 等)。对于ai、ei 和 ao、ou,(即“开”、“微”和“豪”、“侯”四韵部)我们可以利用一些方言(如吴语、粤语)将它们分别归入歌韵(e)和波韵(o),即统归于梭坡辙,或少数归入乜斜辙(皆韵ie)。举例如下:

      属于开韵ai,常见的有:拍、白、麦、脉、摘、拆、宅、塞、窄、翟,等。

      属于微韵ei,常见的有:北、黑、贼、给,等等。

      它们大体都可“转音”为歌韵,即韵母“ai”、“ei”都变为同一个“e”!  “给”稍例外,它可读作“ji”,入齐韵,或可读作“jie”,入皆韵。

      属于豪韵ao,常见的有:嚼、脚、角、壳、削、药,等等。

      属于侯韵ou,常见的有:粥、轴、熟、肉,等等。

      在方言中,它们又都可以念作波韵或皆韵的。

      除去了ai、ei 和 ao、ou这四个韵部后,即可将剩下的列成如表一:

    i

    u

    ü

    a

    (ia)

    (ua)

    o

    (uo)

    e

    ie

    üe

      显然,这第一步就将问题的讨论范围大大地缩小了,对问题的研讨和分析很有帮助。再仔细地推敲一下表一,又发现,ia和uo是不能独立成一类的,它们分别和麻韵a和波韵e合为一整体。(只有“嗲”是例外,但这是吴方言。)

      另外,声母能和ua相拼的只有极少数,诸如:g、k、h和zh、sh。其中,kua和zhua并无一个入声字,而gua、hua中又仅限于少数几个阳平声调中(如:刮、滑)。至于shua则只有一个“刷”字(当然还有以此为“部首”的“唰”和“涮”字)。于此,剩下的就只有乜斜辙的ie和 üe以及六个单韵母了。

      通过下边检验,将会进一步看到,凡是复韵母中含有“e”的(不包括鼻韵母en、eng)则它们和一切声母相拼所读成的字全都属于入声字。少数例外的情况可视其分别划归为麻韵(如:遮、车、舍、斜,等)或开韵(如:街、鞋、界,等)。这样,真正需要我们讨论的就只有六个单韵母了。于是,问题就归结到了最简单的程度,但这却是最复杂的部分。

      在进一步讨论之前应该先对普通话中的声母发音作个概略的分析,这对正题的探讨是有帮助的。把发音部位和发音方法综合起来,可列成如表二:

    普通话声母发音表(表二)

    发音方法

    发音部位

    清塞音

    清塞擦音

    不送气

    送气

    不送气

    送气

    双唇音

    b

    p

    m

    唇齿音

    f

    舌尖音

    d

    t

    n

    l

    舌根音

    g

    k

    h

    舌面音

    j

    q

    x

    翘舌音

    zh

    ch

    sh

    r

    平舌音

    z

    c

    s

      再将二十一个声母与六个单韵母列成表三

    入声字声韵归纳表(表三)

    a(ia)

    o(uo)

    e

    i

    u

    ü

    b

    阳平

    阳平

    阳平

    阳平

    p

    (无)

    阴平

    m

    无(抹、。

    全(除磨)

    f

    除阴平、上声

    d

    阳平

    阳平

    阳平(全)

    阳平

    阳平

    t

    上、去

    去(全)

    (无)

    阴平

    n

    去(全)

    l

    全(除拉)

    去(全)

    去(除丽、利)

    去(除虑)

    g

    阳平

    阳平

    k

    喀、咯

    去(全)

    阴平

    h

    阴、阳、去

    无(忽)

    j

    阳平

    阳平

    阳平

    q

    (无)

    (无)

    x

    阳平(除霞)

    阳平

    zh

    阳平

    阳平

    ch

    无(察)

    sh

    杀、煞、霎

    阳平(除时)

    阳平

    r

    去(全)

    去(全)

    去(全)

    z

    阳平

    阳平

    c

    去(撮)

    (无)

    s

    缩、索

    去(俗)

      如果能仔细地观察和对比之后,将会发现:

      一、每一大栏的第一栏,都是由高升调(阳平)组成。(至于包括全部的更不待言)它们是b、d、g、j、zh、z。对照一下表二,全是属于不送气的清塞音或清塞擦音。

      二、由浊音声母 m、n、l、r 与这六个单韵母拼成的字中,凡入全降调(去声)的都归属入声字。

      三、从竖向看,则一眼看出,e 与任何声母相拼,都成了入声。当然有“例外”,那就是如“哥、科、和;遮、车、舍”等,不过,那是可以分别剔入波韵和麻韵的。后三种前边已经提到过。前三种,如“哥”可念作go,“科”念作ko,“和”念作ho。

      以上三点是显而易见的,其它的类别则需要加倍留意和仔细检索。不妨随便检点一下,虽不成体例,然尚可借以窥其一斑。

      四、上边已讨论了不送气的几个清音,现在再来看看送气的情形。它们分别为 p、t、k、q、ch、c。这里还需分四种情形讨论。

      1. 当这几个声母与 a、o、e 相拼时,则属于入声的大多都落在全降调上。(除非没有,如:pà、kà、chà )

      2. 在支韵和齐韵中,等于没有一个是入声字。(只有 chì赤例外)这里,pi劈、ti剔、qi乞,在吴语中竟可念作pie撇、tie铁、qie切。粤语亦然,几无区别。而ci赐古通锡,它也能念作xie歇。故而在这里被剔了出去,造成了所谓的“空白区”。由此也得到了一点启发,凡是舌尖韵母璱(前)或璱(后)在与送气的清音声母相拼时不能“转化”为皆韵(ie)的,则一定不是入声字。反之则然。

      3. 再来看模韵,它又可分为两种情形。

      甲、在 pu、tu、ku 中,大抵上只有高平调(阴平)才能算作入声字。

      乙、在 chu与cu 中只有去声才能认作入声字。q与u不能相拼,故缺一项。

      4. 鱼韵中,则荡然无存。仅有的几字,如:曲、屈,在吴语中是读作que。

      五、 对于唇齿音,也有个明显的标志,即:

      1. 唇齿分离时,如:fa、fo,则其必为入声。

      2. 唇齿相依时,如:fu,则一般不易区分。不过,其阴平和上声却能肯定不是入声,只能在阳平和去声中去辨认。

      六、对于零声母Y、W的几种情形:

      ya 归入声的只有三个字:压、押、鸭。

      ye 去声的全部是入声字。(“夜”除外,它应读作yà。)

      yi 较复杂,四声中除阳平外,都有入声字。

      yue 全部是入声字。

      yo 该拼音只有两个字:唷、哟,当属入声字。

      wa 只有一个入声字:挖。

      wo 去声部分皆为入声字。

      wu 屋、兀、勿、物等少数几个为入声字。

      至此,问题已大部解决,剩下的只是些零星的部分,对此还有待于进一步的研究。不过,在作完全解决之前,还是有一些简单的也是行之有效的办法的,虽然是“笨”了些。那就是依偏旁、部首来推知一些入声字,这在王力的小册子中已讲得很清楚,不再赘述。应该指出的是,从谐声偏旁进行类推的办法带有相当的猜测性,有时就不灵,因此不能作为主导,只能作为一种辅助手段使用。其他更好的办法有没有呢?应该会有的,这有待于我们去继续探索。

      通过以上讨论,还使我们想到,是不是可以对现有的一些语音进行适当的调整?笔者通过反复试验,认为只要稍为变动一下,就会使很多的入声字都纳入了“规范”,使“表三”更显示出它的规律性来。依此来检验入声字,将会感到毫不费力。当然,这只是一种设想,未免太牵强了些。语言的问题是社会的问题,总不能为了某种特殊的需要而加以随意改换吧?诚如斯大林所指出的那样:“没有特别必要的时候,历史是决不会作什么重大的改革的。”(见《马克思主义和语言学问题》)

      关于入声字的辩认问题,本人就提出这么一些看法。限于学识水平,所论及的问题还不很全面,还需要进一步的充实。至于疏漏谬误之处,亦所难免,恳请方家予以指教。推荐阅读:《入声字总结

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