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    学诗百法 简明词谱 花间词 玉壶清话

    "花间词派"介绍

      花间词派是什么?

      "花间词"派是晚唐五代奉温庭筠为鼻祖而进行词的创作的一个文人词派。花间派产生于西蜀,得名于赵崇祚编辑的《花间集》。主要的词人还有孙光宪、李珣、牛希济。这一词派题材狭窄、情致单调。大都以婉约的表达手法,写女性的美貌和服饰以及他们的离愁别恨。在这些词中描绘景物富丽、意象繁多、构图华美、刻画工细,能唤起读者视觉、听觉、嗅觉的美感。由于注重锤炼文字、音韵,从而形成隐约迷离幽深的意境。对后世的文人词产生、发展有一定的影响。

     

      花间词派的起源

      花间词诞生于晚唐五代,花间词派作为最早的流派之一在词的发展史上占有重要的地位,有着巨大的影响。晚唐五代时,南方相对安定的社会环境为词的发展提供了有利的外部条件,相继出现了西蜀和南唐两个词坛中心。五代赵崇祚撰《花间集》,收集了温庭筠、皇甫松、孙光宪、韦庄、和凝、薛昭蕴、牛峤、张泌、毛文锡、牛希济、欧阳炯、顾夐、魏承班、鹿虔扆、阎选、尹鹗、毛熙震、李珣等人的500首词作。其中除温庭筠、皇甫松、孙光宪之外,都是集中在西蜀的文人,称为“花间派”。

      花间派中“花间”两字出自花间词人张泌“还似花间见,双双对对飞。”一句。纵观花间词派一十八位词人,可以发现他们的作品词风浮艳,多写情爱。大多数为所谓男词人写女性生活的“闺情”代言体。更多花间词派的知识请关注习古堂国学网的相关文章。

      花间词派是唐末五代词派。因后蜀赵崇祚所编《花间集》而得名。主要词人有韦庄、牛希济、欧阳炯、鹿虔扆、李 、牛峤等。“花间”词人奉温庭筠为“鼻祖”,但只继承了温词中偏于闺情、伤于柔弱、过于雕琢的“柔而软”的词风,多数作品尽力描绘妇女的容貌、服饰和情态,辞藻艳丽、色彩华美,题材狭窄、内容空虚,缺乏意境的创造。其中也有少数作品能够脱去浓腻的脂粉气,具有较为开阔的生活内容。而以韦庄成就较高,牛希济、李 、孙光宪、鹿虔扆、欧阳炯等人也有不同于花间派词风的佳作。“花间”词风直接影响了北宋词坛,直到清代“常州词派”。

     

      花间词派代表人物

      花间词诞生于晚唐五代,花间词派作为最早的流派之一在词的发展史上占有重要的地位,有着巨大的影响。晚唐五代时,南方相对安定的社会环境为词的发展提供了有利的外部条件,相继出现了西蜀和南唐两个词坛中心。五代赵崇祚撰《花间词》,收集了温庭筠、皇甫松、孙光宪、韦庄、和凝、薛昭蕴、牛峤、张泌、毛文锡、牛希济、欧阳炯、顾夐、魏承班、鹿虔扆、阎选、尹鹗、毛熙震、李珣等人的500首词作。其中除温庭筠、皇甫松、孙光宪之外,都是集中在西蜀的文人,称为“花间派”。

     

      “花间词派”鼻祖温庭筠

      温庭筠(约812-870年),本名歧,字飞卿,唐太原祁(今山西祁县)人,世居太原,是晚唐著名的诗人、词家。也是当时作词最多,对后世长短句的发展影响极大的词人之一。

      庭筠出身于没落的官僚贵族家庭,虽为唐初名声显赫的太原温氏后裔,但是,到他父亲这一代时,早是家道中落,衰微而已。他少年时代,即以善思敏悟。才华横溢而称著乡里。逮至长成,更是博闻强记,通晓音律,善为管弦,而且,尤以诗词文赋见长。世传,庭筠每入试,押官韵作赋,从不起草, “但笼袖凭几,每赋一咏,一吟而已”,故得“温八吟”之号。曾经“八叉手而成八韵”,又别称“温八叉”。大约是因为其长相较为丑陋的缘故吧,所以时人亦有称他“温钟馗”的。

     

      “花间词派”重要人物韦庄

      韦庄(836——910),字端己,京兆杜陵(今陕西西安)人。身世孤贫而才敏过人。韦庄壮年时曾南游,足迹遍及长江南北。他著有词集《浣花集》,全书十卷。在晚唐五代,韦庄和温庭筠齐名,他们都是《花间集》中的代表者。韦庄的词除了带有花间艳词的普遍风格之外,又有自己的独特之处。他特别喜欢采用白描手法,能够用它来书写人物情感,创造出一种清雅别致的意境,从而创造了花间词的另一风格。更多花间词派的知识请关注习古堂国学网的相关文章。

     

      花间词的特点

      “花间词”是一种早期的词,从它的来源《花间集》得名。 一般说来,词以长短分类:“慢词”最长,自九十至二百多事,故亦称“长调”;自五十九至九十字为“中调”,五十九字以内为“小令”!痘浼匪,只有小令和中调而没有长调慢词。这倒并不是选者对小令有偏好,故摒弃慢词而不录,实在因为自晚唐至五代(甚至在北宋初年)慢词还没有发展出来。另外一个早期选集《尊前集》也是如此,只收小令和中调。总体上说,花间词都是婉约词,而婉约词则远不止花间词;浯适峭裨即实谝唤锥尾,开婉约词风气之先,在词史上具有不可替代的奠基作用。

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