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    《出塞(凉州词)》王之涣(注释,翻译,点评,唐诗赏析)

    【作品简介】

      《出塞》,是边塞诗的著名题目。主要以描写边疆的军旅生活与军事行动为主。有一定的主关民族意识,因与其所处历史时期及生存环境有关。间接的表达了战争的残酷和对和平生活的向往。

      凉州词:又名《出塞》。为当时流行的一首曲子《凉州》配的唱词。郭茂倩《乐府诗集》卷七十九《近代曲词》载有《凉州歌》,并引《乐苑》云:“《凉州》,宫调曲,开元中西凉府都督郭知运进”。凉州,属唐陇右道,治所在姑臧县(今甘肃省武威市凉州区)。

     

    【原文】

    《出塞(凉州词)》

    作者:王之涣

    黄河远上白云间,一片孤城万仞山。

    羌笛何须怨杨柳,春风不度玉门关。

     

    【注解】:

    1、凉州词:又名《出塞》。为当时流行的一首曲子《凉州》配的唱词。郭茂倩《乐府诗集》卷七十九《近代曲词》载有《凉州歌》,并引《乐苑》云:“《凉州》,宫调曲,开元中西凉府都督郭知运进”。凉州,属唐陇右道,治所在姑臧县(今甘肃省武威市凉州区)。   

    2、远上:远远向西望去。“远”一作“直”;坪釉渡希涸锻坪拥脑赐。   

    3、孤城:指孤零零的戍边的城堡。仞:古代的长度单位,一仞相当于七尺或八尺(约等于213厘米或264cm厘米)。   

    4、羌笛:古羌族主要分布在甘、青、川一带。羌笛是羌族乐器,属横吹式管乐。何须:何必。杨柳:《折杨柳》曲。古诗文中常以杨柳喻送别情事!诗经·小雅·采薇》:“昔我往矣,杨柳依依。”北朝乐府《鼓角横吹曲》有《折杨柳枝》,歌词曰:“上马不捉鞭,反拗杨柳枝。下马吹横笛,愁杀行客儿。”   

    5、度:吹到过。玉门关:汉武帝置,因西域输入玉石取道于此而得名。故址在今甘肃敦煌西北小方盘城,是古代通往西域的要道。六朝时关址东移至今安西双塔堡附近。

    6、万仞:一仞八尺,万仞是形容山很高的意思。

    7、杨柳:指“折杨柳曲”,是一种哀怨的曲调。

    8、玉门关:关名,在今甘肃省敦煌县西南,是古代通西域的要道。

     

    【作者简介】:

      王之涣 (688—742)唐代诗人。字季凌,祖籍晋阳(今山西太原),其高祖迁今山西绛县。其兄王之咸、王之贲皆有文名。他从小就很讲究义气,纵酒谈乐,豪放不羁,;鹘1。中年才悔悟而立志向学。对于参加科场考试没有兴趣,学成后到处拜访名人。担任过主管文书簿记的小官,后来因受诽谤而辞职,过著游山玩水的生活。存诗六首,其诗多被当时乐工制曲歌唱,名动一时,常与高适、王昌龄等相唱和,以善于描写边塞风光著称。用词十分朴实,然造境极为深远,令人裹身诗中,回味无穷。

     

    韵译】:

    黄河发源于黄土高原,高入白云之间,矗立漠北的一座孤城,背倚万仞高山。

    莫须埋怨,羌笛吹奏折杨柳的悲调曲,谁还不知道,春风历来就不度玉门关。

     

    【译文】:
      远远奔流而来的黄河,好像与白云连在一起,玉门关孤零零地耸峙在高山之中,显得孤峭冷寂。何必用羌笛吹起那哀怨的杨柳曲去埋怨春光迟迟呢,原来玉门关一带春风是吹不到的!

     

    【评析】:

      塞当作求取功名的一种出路。一些大都有边塞生活经历的知识分子,他们的诗歌以描写边塞生活为主要内容,这就形成了所谓“边塞诗派”。

    这首诗旨在写凉州险僻,守边艰苦。诗的首句,写汹涌澎湃的黄河,发源于云端,突出其源远流长,展示边地广漠壮阔的风光。次句写凉州城的戍边堡垒,地处险要,境界孤危。“一片”是唐诗常用词,通常与“孤”相连用(如“一片孤云”、“孤帆一片”等等),这里即“一座”的意思。三句递转,写所闻。羌笛奏着《折杨柳》的曲调,勾起征夫离愁。唐时有折柳赠别的风俗,因而见杨柳而生愁,甚至听《折杨柳》歌而生怨。关外春风不度,杨柳不青,无法折柳寄情,听曲更生怨恨:

      “天寒地冻”、“征战无期”、“归家无望”。然而,“怨”也罢,愁也罢,都是枉然,因而作“何须怨”。这种宽解语,着实委婉,深沉含蓄,耐人寻味,不愧为边塞诗的绝唱。 更多唐诗欣赏敬请关注“习古堂国学网”的唐诗三百首栏目。(http://www.ysxuexi.com) 

      这是一首雄浑苍凉的边塞诗。据唐人薛用弱《集异记》记载:开元(唐玄宗年号,公元713—741年)间,王之涣与高适、王昌龄到酒店饮酒,遇梨园伶人唱曲宴乐,三人便私下约定以伶人演唱各人所作诗篇的情形定诗名高下。结果三人的诗都被唱到了,而诸伶中最美的一位女子所唱则为“黄河远上白云间”。其事未必实有,但表明王之涣这首《凉州词》在当时已成为广为传唱的名篇。

       此诗经“孤城”为中心而衬以辽阔雄奇的背景。首句“黄河远上”,有人认为很费解,故易“黄河远上”为“黄沙直上”。然而“黄沙直上”,天昏地暗,根本不可能看见“白云”。其实,“黄河远上”并不难理解。李白与王之涣都写过沿黄河西望的景色,不同点在于:李白的目光由远而近,故创出“黄河之水天上来” 的奇句;王之涣的目光自近及远,故展现了“黄河远上白云间”的奇景。遥望西陲,黄河由东向西,无限延伸,直入白云,这是纵向描写。在水天相接处突起“万仞山”,山天相连,这是竖向描写。就在这水天相接、山天相连处,“一片孤城”,隐约可见。这,就是此诗所展现的独特画面。

       前两句偏重写景,后两句偏重抒情。然而后两句的情,已孕育于前两句的景。“一片孤城”,已有萧索感、荒凉感。而背景的辽阔,更反衬出它的萧索;背景的雄奇,更反衬出它的荒凉。“孤城”中人的感受,尤其如此。这“孤城” 不是居民点,而是驻防地。住在这里的征人,大约正是沿着万里黄河直上白云间,来此戍守边疆的。久住“孤城”,不可能没有思家怀乡之情。这就引出了三四句。羌笛吹奏的不是别的,而是“愁杀行客见”的《折杨柳曲》,其思家怀乡之情已明白可见。妙在不说思家怀乡,而说“怨杨柳”。“怨”的内容,从结句看,是怨杨柳尚未发青。李白《塞下曲》“五月天山雪,无花只有寒。笛中闻折柳,春色未曾看”,有助于加深对这个“怨”字的理解。诗意很婉曲:闻《折杨柳曲》,自然想到当年离家时亲人们折柳送别的情景,激起思家之情;由亲人折柳的回忆转向眼前的现实,便想到故乡的杨柳早已青丝拂地,而“孤城”里还看不风一点春色,由此激起的,仍然是思家之情。诗意如此委婉深厚,而诗人意犹未足,又用“不须”宕开,为结句蓄势,然后以解释“不须”的原因作结。意思是:既然春风吹不到玉门关外, 关外的杨柳自然不会吐叶,光“怨”它又有何用?黄生《唐诗摘抄》云:“王龙标‘更吹羌笛关山月,无那金闺万里愁’,李君虞‘不知何处吹芦管,一夜征人尽望乡’,与此并同一意,然不及此作,以其含蓄深永,只用‘何须’二字略略见意故耳。”写景雄奇壮阔,抒情含蓄深永,正是这首诗的艺术魅力所在。更多唐诗欣赏敬请关注“习古堂国学网”的唐诗三百首栏目。

       含蓄深永的诗是可以从多方面理解的。杨慎《升庵诗话》卷二:“此诗言 恩泽不及边塞,所谓君门远于万里也。”李锳《诗法易简录》进一步指出:“不言君恩之不及,而托言春风之不度,立言尤为得体。”   这首诗是一幅西北边疆壮美风光的画卷,又是一首对出征将士满怀同情的怨歌,二者统一于短短的四句诗中,引人遐想,耐人寻味,全诗句句精采,情景交融,妙绝千古。从唐人薛用弱《集异记》所载的“旗亭画壁”故事看,这道诗脱稿不久,已传遍四方,推为绝唱。

     


    【英汉对照】

    出塞

    王之涣

    黄河远上白云间, 一片孤城万仞山。

    羌笛何须怨杨柳, 春风不度玉门关。

     

    BEYOND THE BORDER

    Wang Zhihuan


    Where a yellow river climbs to the white clouds,

    Near the one city-wall among ten-thousand-foot mountains,

    A Tartar under the willows is lamenting on his flute

    That spring never blows to him through the Jade Pass

    ------分隔线----------------------------
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    唐诗宋词精选 Copyright © 2008-2018 习古堂国学网(www.ysxuexi.com) 版权所有 浙ICP备08111548号

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