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    当前位置:习古堂国学网>> 历史传记>>

    《左传》

    书名:《左传》
    作者:左丘明
     
    目录
     

        《左传》是记载中国春秋时期历史的编年史书。多用事实解释《春秋》,为儒家重要经典之一。西汉时称《左氏春秋》,东汉以后改称《春秋左氏传》,简称《左传》。据西汉史学家司马迁说,作者是鲁国的左丘明。但左丘明是春秋末年人,《左传》却提到战国初期的某些史实,故许多学者认为此说不可信。清末康有为断言它是西汉末刘歆伪造。但在刘歆以前《左传》已被许多人抄撮或征引过,故康氏之说也难成立。当代学者多认为是战国初年人所作。据杨伯峻考证,大约作于公元前403~前386年之间。

        《左传》是记录春秋时期社会状况的重要典籍。其中保存了许多宝贵的哲学思想资料,反映了西周末期已开始动摇的宗教天道观的进一步瓦解,记录了唯物主义的阴阳五行说、无神论和朴素辩证法思想的发展。例如,周内史叔兴认为“陨石” 等现象是 “阴阳之事”,并非鬼神借以预示吉凶;“吉凶由人”。秦国医和认为疾病不是鬼神作祟,而是阴、阳、风、雨、晦、明“六气”作用的结果。鲁国梓慎和叔孙昭子认为日蚀和水灾、旱灾是阴阳相克引起的。晋国史墨认为“地有五行”。宋国子罕认为“天生五材”,把由五行构成的自然界看作是人类赖以生存的物质基础。 郑国子产认为 “天道远、人道迩”,用宝物祭神不足禳除火灾。齐国晏婴在论述“和”与“同”的区别时,表述了相异、相反的事物可以“相成”、“相济”的朴素辩证思想。晋国史墨还提出了“社稷无常奉,君臣无常位”的变化观点。

     
     
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