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    当前位置:习古堂国学网>> 古文鉴赏>>

    《捕蛇者说》鉴赏

    捕蛇者说
    柳宗元

      永州之野产异蛇:黑质而白章,触草木尽死;以 人,无御之者。然得而 之以为饵,可以已大风、挛 、镂疠,去死肌,杀叁虫。其始太医以王命聚之,岁赋其二;募有能捕之者,当其租入。永之人争奔走焉。

      有蒋氏者,专其利叁世矣。问之,则曰:“吾祖死於是,吾父死於是,今吾嗣为之十二年,几死者数矣。”言之貌若甚戚者。余悲之,且曰:“若毒之乎?余将告於莅事者,更若役,复若赋,则如何?”蒋氏大戚,汪然出涕,曰:“君将哀而生之乎?则吾斯役之不幸,未若复吾赋不幸之甚也。向吾不为斯役,则久已病矣。自吾氏叁世居是乡,积於今六十岁矣。而乡邻之生日蹙,殚其地之出,竭其庐之入。号呼而转徙,饿渴而顿踣。触风雨,犯寒暑,呼嘘毒疠,往往而死者,相藉也。曩与吾祖居者,今其室十无一焉。与吾父居者,今其室十无二叁焉。与吾居十二年者,今其室十无四五焉。非死即徙尔,而吾以捕蛇独存。悍吏之来吾乡,叫嚣乎东西,隳突乎南北;哗然而骇者,虽鸡狗不得宁焉。吾恂恂而起,视其缶,而吾蛇尚存,则弛然卧。谨食之,时而献焉。退而甘食其土之有,以尽吾齿。盖一岁之犯死者二焉,其馀则熙熙而乐,岂若吾乡邻之旦旦有是哉。今虽死乎此,比吾乡邻之死则已後矣,又安敢毒耶?”

      余闻而愈悲,孔子曰:“苛政猛於虎也!”吾尝疑乎是,今以蒋氏观之,犹信。呜呼!孰知赋敛之毒,有甚於是蛇者乎!笔为之说,以俟夫观人风者得焉。

     

      【题解】《捕蛇者说》是柳宗元被传诵不衰的著名篇章之一。文章通过对以捕蛇为业的蒋氏一家三代的悲惨遭遇,尖锐地揭露了从唐玄宗天宝后期至作者被贬官永州时约六十年间人民的苦难生活:苛重赋税的压榨,贪官悍吏的迫害,逼得劳动人民纷纷走上逃窜死亡的道路。本文生动而具体地表现了孔子所说“苛政猛于虎”的思想,具有很强烈的感染力量。
     
      永州之野产异蛇,黑质而白章,触草木,尽死;以啮人[1],无御之者。然得而腊之以为饵[2],可以已大风、挛踠、瘘、疠[3],去死肌,杀三虫[4]。其始,太医以王命聚之[5],岁赋其二。募有能捕之者,当其租入,永之人争奔走焉。
      有蒋氏者,专其利三世矣。问之,则曰:“吾祖死于是,吾父死于是,今吾嗣为之十二年,几死者数矣[6]。”言之,貌若甚戚者。
      余悲之,且曰:“若毒之乎?余将告于莅事者[7],更若役,复若赋,则何如?”
      蒋氏大戚,汪然出涕曰:“君将哀而生之乎?则吾斯役之不幸,未若复吾赋不幸之甚也。向吾不为斯役[8],则久已病矣。自吾氏三世居是乡,积于今六十岁矣,而乡邻之生日蹙。殚其地之出,竭其庐之入;号呼而转徙,饥渴而顿踣[9];触风雨,犯寒暑,呼嘘毒疠,往往而死者相籍也。曩与吾祖居者,今其室十无一焉;与吾父居者,今其室十无二三焉;与吾居十二年者,今其室十无四五焉:非死而徙尔。而吾以捕蛇独存。悍吏之来吾乡,叫嚣乎东西,隳突乎南北[10],哗然而骇者,虽鸡狗不得宁焉。吾恂恂而起[11],视其缶[12],而吾蛇尚存,则弛然而卧。谨食之,时而献焉。退而甘食其土之有,以尽吾齿。盖一岁之犯死者二焉,其余则熙熙而乐,岂若吾乡邻之旦旦有是哉!今虽死乎此,比吾乡邻之死则已后矣,又安敢毒耶?”
      余闻而愈悲?鬃釉唬“苛政猛于虎也[13]。”吾尝疑乎是。今以蒋氏观之,犹信。呜呼!孰知赋敛之毒,有甚是蛇者乎!故为之说,以俟夫观人风者得焉[14]。
    ——选自中华书局校点本《柳宗元集》
     
      永州的野外出产一种奇怪的蛇,它黑色的底子,白色的花纹,接触到草木,草木全都枯死;咬到人,没有能够抗得住的。但是捉到它杀死风干做成药物,却可以治愈麻疯、风湿性关节炎、颈部脓肿、毒疮,除去坏死的肌肉,杀死危害人体的三尸虫。当初,太医奉皇帝的命令征集这种毒蛇,每年征收两次。招募能捕这种蛇的人,可以用蛇充抵他应交纳的租税。永州的人都争着去干这件差事。
      有一个姓蒋的,享有捕蛇免租的好处已经有三代了。我问起这件事,他说:“我祖父死在捕蛇这差事上,我父亲死在捕蛇这差事上,如今我继承祖业干这差事已经十二年,有好几次也差点被蛇咬死。”说着,露出很悲伤的神色。
    我很怜悯他,就说:“你怨恨这差事吗?我准备去告诉掌管这事的官吏,让他更换你的差事,恢复你的赋税,你看怎么样?”
      姓蒋的一听更加伤心,他眼泪汪汪地说:“你是哀怜我,想让我活下去吗?那么我这差事的不幸,远比不上恢复我纳税的痛苦那样厉害呀。假使当初我不干这捕蛇的差事,那早就困苦不堪了。从我家三代住在此地以来,算到现在已经六十年了,而乡邻们的生活却一天比一天困难。他们拿出地里的全部出产,交出家里的一切收入;哭哭啼啼地背井离乡,因饥渴劳累而倒毙在地;一路上被风吹雨淋,冒严寒酷暑,呼吸毒雾瘴气,常常因此死掉的人横七竖八地躺在路边。从前和我祖父同居一村的人,现在十家中剩下的不到一家了;和我父亲同居一村的人,现在十家中剩下的不到两三家了;和我一起住了十二年的,如今十家中剩下的也不到四五家了:不是死了,就是搬走了。而我却因为捕蛇才幸存下来。那凶狠的差役来到我们村里时,到处吵闹,到处骚扰,吓得人们乱喊乱叫,连鸡狗也不得安宁。我只要小心翼翼地起来,看看那贮蛇的瓦罐子,见我捕的蛇还在里面,就放心倒头大睡。平时我小心地喂养蛇,到规定交纳的时间就去上交;丶液缶外蛔缘玫叵碛米约禾锏乩锍霾亩,这样来安度天年。因为一年之中冒生命危险的时机只有两次,其他的时候都过着心情舒畅的生活,哪会象我的乡邻们那样天天担惊受怕呢!我现在即使就死在捉蛇上面,比起我乡邻们的死亡那已晚得多了,又怎么敢怨恨呢!”   我听了更加难过?鬃釉倒“暴政比老虎更加凶恶啊。”我曾经怀疑这句话。现在拿姓蒋一家的遭遇来看,这话还真是确实的。唉,谁知道横征暴敛对百姓的毒害比毒蛇更厉害呢!因此我才写了这篇文章,留待那些考察民情风俗的官吏参考。(汪贤度)
     
    【注释】
     。1]啮(niè聂):咬。[2]腊(xī西):干肉。这里作动词,有“风干”之意。[3]大风:麻疯病。挛踠(luánwǎn峦宛):一种手脚拳曲不能伸直的病。瘘:颈部肿烂流脓。疠:恶疮。[4]三虫:古时道家迷信的说法,认为人的脑、胸、腹三部分有“三尸虫”,此虫作崇,有关部分即得病。[5]太医:唐代设太医署,有令二人,其下医师为皇室治病。[6]数(shuò朔):多次。[7]莅(lì利)事者:管这事的官吏。[8]向:从前。这里有假使的意思。[9]顿:劳累。踣(bó。旱贡。[10]隳(huī灰)突:骚扰。[11]恂恂(xú巡):小心谨慎的样子。[12]缶(fǒu否):小口大腹的瓦罐。[13]苛政猛于虎也:据《礼记·檀弓下》记载:“孔子过泰山侧,有妇人哭于墓者而哀。夫子式而听之,使子路问之,曰:‘子之哭也,壹似重有忧者?’而曰:‘然。昔者吾舅死于虎,吾夫又死焉,今吾子又死焉。’夫子曰:‘何为不去也?’曰:‘无苛政。’夫子曰:‘小子识之,苛政猛于虎也。’”[14]人风:民风。唐人避唐太宗李世民的名讳,凡遇“民”字皆写为“人。?
     

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